In the order presented in the chapter, compare the nine major animal phyla and list the characteristics of each group.
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Step 1: Porifera, also known as sponges, are aquatic and sessile organisms that do not move.
Step 2: Cnidaria includes jellyfish and corals. They have radial symmetry and specialized tissue layers. Some are sessile while others can move.
Step 3: Platyhelminthes, or flatworms, have bilateral symmetry and are unsegmented.
Step 4: Annelida includes segmented worms with bilateral symmetry.
Step 5: Mollusca includes mollusks and squids. They are mostly marine organisms and can swim. Their body plan consists of a foot, a mantle, and a visceral mass.
Step 6: Nematoda includes roundworms and nematodes. They can be found in soil and aquatic ecosystems and are unsegmented.
Step 7: Echinodermata includes starfish and urchins. They have spines and lack heads. They are composed of three layers, including an endoskeleton.
Step 8: Arthropoda includes arachnids and insects. They are segmented and have a complex sensory system.
Step 9: Chordata includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and other vertebrates. They have a nerve cord and bilateral body plans.
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