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How does the diagram violate the second law of
thermodynamics?
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The diagram violates the second law of thermodynamics.

What is Clausius’s Statement of the second law of thermodynamics?

A gadget that operates in a cycle and can transfer heat from a colder body to a warmer one without requiring any work is not conceivable to build. A low-temperature object cannot spontaneously transfer energy to a high-temperature object. It's crucial to remember that we're talking about the net transfer of energy. Energy can be transferred from a cold object to a hot object through electromagnetic radiation or the passage of energetic particles.

However, in any spontaneous process, there will be a net transfer from the hot object to the cool object. Additionally, the net energy must be transferred to the heated object by some sort of work.In other words, the refrigerator won't be able to run unless the compressor is powered by an outside source. The refrigerator and heat pump operate according to Clausius's statement.

In the diagram heat flows from cold object to hot object simultaneously which violates the second law of thermodynamics.

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