UNITED AND DIVIDED: HOW RELIGION DROVE POLITICS IN PRE-MODERN EUROPE How does the author support the idea that religion had an important influence on politics in Europe? commonLit
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According to Shelby Ostergaard, religious wars and the Protestant Reformation were key elements in leading Europe into the nation-state system.


In the 15th century, a conflict within the Catholic Church prompted the Protestant Reformation and the European religious wars and that fragmented the European political order. The conflict ended when the Peace of Westphalia (1648) was signed, establishing Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism as different authentic Christian beliefs, and reorganizing Europe from a tribal system into the nation-state system.

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